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Category : Travel and Tourism


California is the most populous state in the United States. Its state capital is Sacramento.
For about 13,000-15,000 years, over 100 native tribes and bands lived in the present day California. There were about 100,000-300,000 Native Americans living there, which is about 33% of the entire Native American population that was in the United States. They survived in the forests by hunting and gathering, using fire in a regulated manner to avoid burning down the forests.

First Europeans

In the middle of the 16th century, European troops from Spain and England explored the Pacific Coast of California. The incentives for the exploration were stories of the existence of very wealthy cities along the California coast and a Northwest Passage that would be a significantly shorter route to the Indies.

Joao Rodrigues Cabrilho was the first explorer to venture into the California coast. He unfortunately suffered a severe injury that led to gangrene. He died in 1543. His party returned about 3 months after his death, disheartened at having found neither wealth nor passage. They thus lost interest in California. The Indians they had come across were living very simple lives with no sophistication. Even the homes they lived in were simplistic. Some tribes were fishing and trading using canoes.

California has not always been agriculturally productive. During that period, crops needed irrigation to thrive. The Indians solely depended on hunting and gathering without practising any agriculture. Acorns were a popular staple as they were available in plenty. They were dried and ground then used to cook a mush.

Spanish trading route

This was developed for the trading of gold and silver for goods and spices from Asia. The passage connected the Philippines and Mexico. The trade was profitable and was kept up for about 200 years.

Spanish Colonization

This happened in 1769-1821. California was however isolated, lacked large tribes or agriculture, and had acorns as the staple food. This made it an unappealing prospect for potential colonists to set up their missions.

Inadequate food supplies

There was severe food shortage at the beginning of 1770. This was eased by San Antonio, a sailing ship that came in with relief food.

Gold Rush

This happened between 1848 and 1855. A lot of people, both Americans and foreigners, flocked into California in search of gold. The settling of miners around different mines led to development of different amenities. More towns were also built, and they became occupied very fast. Agriculture also developed to meet the food demands of the growing population. The rush led to pushing of Native Americans off their lands and negative impacts on the environment.


Transport too needed to be developed. Horses and horse and mule drawn wagons gave way to horse cars which used a rail system. These were more efficient and could carry bigger loads. The cable car was invented next. This was replaced by electric streetcars.

California has continually developed over time to one of the largest states.

USA Visa waiver

The USA allows citizens of specific countries to travel to the USA for purposes of business or pleasure for up to 90 days without a visa. Most of the participating countries are well developed.

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